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The University of Chester is committed to equality, diversity and inclusion, to ensuring that men and women are paid the same for the same/equivalent work or work of equal value and to reducing the gender pay gap.

The Gender Pay Gap is calculated in accordance with Government regulations and is the percentage difference between the hourly earnings of all male employees and the hourly earnings of all female employees, whatever type of work they do; it is not a comparison of the difference in pay between men and women doing the same job. Therefore, it is important that ‘Gender pay’ should not be confused with ‘equal pay’ which aims to ensure that male and female employees are paid the same for work of equal value.

What is the current Gender Pay Gap for the University of Chester?

The University’s Gender Pay Gap is based on a snapshot of payroll data as of the 31st March 2018. A positive pay gap denotes that women earn less per hour, on average, than men while a negative pay gap would denote that women earn more, on average, than men. The purpose of reporting on GPG is to identify and address issues behind progression and distribution by gender across the workforce.

Gender Pay Gap

2017

2018

Difference

Mean

14.1%

14.8%

0.7%

Median

18.6%

14.5%

-4.1%

Bonus

100%

100%

0.0%

% Receiving Bonus

0.1%

0.3%

0.2%

The figures above show that the Mean (average) pay gap between male and female hourly pay rates has increased marginally from 14.1% to 14.8%, whilst the Median (the value below which 50% of jobs fall) hourly pay rate between male and female staff has reduced significantly from 18.6% to 14.5%.

Proportion of Male/Female employees per pay quartile

2017

2018

Difference

Lower quartile male %

28%

27%

-0.1%

Lower quartile female %

72%

73%

+0.1%

Lower middle male %

39%

38%

-1.0%

Lower middle female %

61%

62%

+1.0%

Upper middle male %

43%

41%

-2.0%

Upper middle female %

57%

59%

+2.0%

Upper quartile male %

48%

48%

0.0%

Upper quartile female %

52%

52%

0.0%

Total Staff Male %

40%

38%

-2.0%

Total Staff Female %

60%

62%

+2.0%

It is evident from the above figures that there has been a shift in the composition of the workforce. Female staff now comprise 62% of the workforce compared to 60% in 2017. The increase in the percentage of female staff is reflected in the lower, lower middle and upper middle quartiles. The percentage of male and female staff in the upper quartile remains unchanged.

As we recognised in our 2017 report, female staff tend to be under-represented at the most senior levels and this is an issue the University is committed to address. However, it should be noted that this does not mean that female staff are paid differently to their male counterparts for undertaking like work.

A contributing factor to the improvement in the Median pay gap is a change to the regulations which allows those staff on Term Time Only contracts to be returned at the hourly rate for the job rather than the actual hourly wage received in the March payroll. Term Time Only contracts allow a member of staff to work between 51 and 40 weeks of the year but still receive a monthly salary. This is a benefit to staff who prefer a regular monthly income throughout the year rather than receiving no salary out of term time. The majority of staff on Term Time Only contracts are female.

Very few staff receive a bonus payment. The percentage of male staff receiving a bonus increased slightly from 0.1% (2017) to 0.3% (2018) therefore the Bonus Pay Gap remains at 100%.

Proportion of Males & Females per Quartile

Lower

Quartile

Lower Middle Quartile

Upper Middle Quartile

Upper

Quartile

Total staff profile

Mean Female Pay

£ 9.65

£ 13.50

£ 18.15

£ 26.16

£ 16.14

Mean Male Pay

£ 9.69

£ 13.70

£ 18.31

£ 28.74

£ 18.94

Mean Pay Gap per Quartile

0%

1%

1%

9%

14.8%

Median Female Pay Gap

£ 9.59

£ 13.11

£ 17.66

£ 25.05

£ 15.19

Median Male Pay Gap

£ 9.59

£ 13.50

£ 17.66

£ 25.05

£ 17.66

Median Pay Gap per Quartile

0%

3%

0%

0%

14.0%

The breakdown of gender pay gaps by quartile show that there are two areas of concern. The first area of concern is the Upper Quartile where there is a significant Mean pay gap is 9%. This reflects the fact that 65% of senior academic and managerial roles above E3 are held by male employees. The second area is Lower Middle quartile which has a Median pay gap of 3%. This is due to the gender profile of Technician and IT roles being predominantly male.

How do these figures compare to other organisations?

The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE, 2018) collated by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) reports that the Mean Gender Pay Gap for the UK is 17.1% and the Median GPG is 17.9%. The report indicates that Median full-time earnings increased on average 3.5% in the 12 month period to April 2018 which is the highest recorded growth in earnings since 2008. However women working full-time (more than 30 hours per week) are still paid on average 8.6% less than men in full-time employment. The results for Higher Education Sector show a slight increase in the Mean gender pay gap of 0.7%.

ONS Gender Pay Gap HEIs

2017

2018

Difference

Mean

15.4

16.1

0.7%

Median

14.0

15.0

1.0%

Comparing the University of Chester 2017 results with Higher Education Institutions of between 1,000 and 4,999 staff, the University of Chester Median GPG was 15th out of 26 with positive gaps ranging, in this group, from 6% to 34%. The range for the Mean GPG was between 3.2% and 22.9% with the University of Chester ranked 12th.

Employer (HEI <4999 staff) % Difference in hourly rate (Median) % Difference in hourly rate (Mean) % Women in lower pay quartile % Women in lower middle pay quartile % Women in upper middle pay quartile % Women in top pay quartile % Who received bonus pay (Women) % Who received bonus pay (Men) % Difference in bonus pay (Mean) % Difference in bonus pay (Median)

Manchester Metropolitan University

6

8.9

62.3

55.9

53.1

51.7

0.1

0.2

3.8

-133

The University Of Cumbria

8

11.8

73.2

77.3

64.5

58.1

2.2

1.8

9.2

-60.9

Leeds Beckett University

8.4

10.2

61.2

57.4

54.4

41.5

1.2

2.6

54

0

Birmingham City University

9.2

11.6

66

57

52

43

0

0

0

0

University of Worcester

11

3.2

65.6

67

63.2

64.1

5

6

-11.5

36.8

University Of Derby

13.5

13

67

65

56

50

8.7

10.8

17.4

0

University of Sussex

15.3

20.8

68

57

50

35

7.5

8.4

58.2

50

Liverpool Hope University

16

17.4

64

68

63

46

8.4

6.6

-37.3

0

Sheffield Hallam University

16.2

13.3

69.9

62.1

54

49.7

1.7

2.4

30.8

23.5

University of Huddersfield

16.2

19.5

71.4

63

49

41

0

0

0

0

Edge Hill University

17

7.5

70.4

67

58.2

62.7

1.3

1.9

57.3

0

University of Exeter

17.2

21.1

66

62

48

42

38.4

37.5

54.6

0

University of York

17.7

19.3

63

56

50

38

3.9

4.6

74

4.4

University Of Bath

17.9

17.8

54.5

64.1

46.5

36.5

17

13.2

9.5

0

University of Chester

18.5

14.1

72

61

57

52

0

0.1

100

100

University Of Gloucestershire

18.5

15.5

76.3

59.3

50.3

42.3

0.4

0.9

0.9

2.9

University of Hertfordshire

19

13

69

64

58

51

68.3

69.9

35

0

University of Sunderland

20.9

12

68

57

57

47

0

0

0

0

The University of Reading

20.9

19.6

62.2

62.8

57.3

42.3

25.8

21.3

18.7

40

Liverpool John Moores University

21.9

8.9

61

60

47

42

0

0

0

0

University of Northumbria at Newcastle

22.7

16.4

67.3

56.9

50.6

42.4

5

7.5

66.8

0

De Montfort University

23

15

67

55

53

42

1.5

3.7

10.1

-67.9

Bath Spa University

23.7

17.2

71

67

52

44

1

0.5

33.7

16.7

University of Hull

27.8

22.9

72.7

61.6

50.4

39.8

0.1

0.6

46.7

58.3

University Of Keele

28

22.1

66.1

69.6

60.3

46.4

1.2

1.6

92.5

90.6

Teesside University

34

18

68

66

49

49

0.1

0.1

63

63

WONKHE (2019) reviewed the Gender Pay Reports published by 122 HEIs after the first publication deadline in March 2018. The following chart shows HEIs by region and mission group in the North West.

What is the University doing to address its gender pay gap?

The Government Equalities Office (GEO) website states “Evidence shows that unequal progression for women in the workplace, alongside reduced labour market participation, are major drivers of the gender pay gap accounting for a combined 54% of the gap. The first year of gender pay gap reporting highlighted the problem that women struggle to progress to senior roles in UK organisations. This is not limited to those sectors where there have been historical problems in recruiting, but occurs right across the board.”

According to the UCEA report ‘Taking Action: Tackling the Gender Pay Gap in Higher Education Institutions’ (Jan 2019) the Gender Pay gap has narrowed from 25% to 14% over the last 10 years. The most common interventions across 115 HEIs who participated in the survey related to Recruitment, Staff Development and Reward. The aim of the actions taken were to support the uptake of flexible working, to improve the work environment and the family friendly nature of employment. The most common actions were: 91% provided Unconscious bias training, 86% plan to deliver a range of mental health and well-being initiatives, 80.4% encourage female applicants for male dominated roles and vice versa.

The University of Chester’s commitment to gender equality can be evidenced through a number of measures and activities including:

  • Achieving the Bronze Athena Swan Charter in 2018, recognising the University’s commitment to addressing equality for staff and students in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths and Medicine and Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences, Business and Law in academic, research and professional roles.
  • Recruiting a new cohort of female staff (Mar 2019) for the Aurora Leadership programme.
  • Running a new round of the mentoring programme to support career development of all staff.
  • Implementing a revised Recruitment and Selection training programme for Chairs of panels and recruiting managers incorporating Unconscious Bias training.
  • Devising a new process to monitor starting salaries and reasons for negotiated salaries above the bottom point in the grade.
  • Conducting the annual review of academic staff eligible for promotion with targeted support for those who wish to apply for Associate Professor or Professorial positions.
  • Monitoring successful appointments by gender.
  • Launching of Our Healthy University Strategy that aims to create a learning environment and organisational culture that enhances the health, well-being and sustainability of its community and enables everyone to achieve their full potential.
  • Conducting the Staff Survey 2018 with supplementary questions around fairness, inclusion and respect. The results show there was no gender specific concerns i.e. issues raised were common to all staff. There was a drop in the number of staff experiencing bullying or harassment to 4%. SMT have communicated the University’s zero tolerance towards bullying, harassment and inappropriate language or behaviours and encourage the reporting of all incidents to Human Resources or line management.
  • Establishing a support group for staff returning from maternity, adoption and paternity leave and publishing guidance signposting staff to available support.
  • Including an individual diversity objective in all staff PDPs (performance appraisals).
  • The Women’s Networking Forum which combines networking with targeted presentations for working women at lunchtime slots throughout the year. Topics

    covered in 2018 included: Mindfulness, Progression & Career Enhancement, Work-Life Balance, and Assertiveness.
  • New Leadership & Management Workshops offer Mandatory Training Sessions for managers to complete within 2 years of appointment including:
    • Recruitment and Selection,
    • Developing Well-being in the Workplace
    • Equality & Diversity in the Workplace
  • Diversity Festival March 2019 offered 74 separate events open to staff, students and the public. Topics relevant to gender include:
    • Exploring inclusivity in Higher Education Series
    • Supporting carers in the Workplace
    • Making Professor Series
    • The Menopause at work
    • Domestic Violence
    • Where are Women in science: sharing learning and good practice
    • Experience of young Gypsy/Traveller women in secondary education
    • Positive Action at Work
    • Intervention Training
  • The University retained the HR Excellence in Research Award
  • Research and Knowledge Transfer Festival April 2019 is showcasing a range of external and internal speakers who will be discussing their research careers. Practical session relevant to gender pay including:
    • Becoming an Open Scientist
    • How to Publish your Research
    • How to secure internal and external funding grants
    • How to engage with business via Innovate UK’s KTP programme
  • The Institute of Gender Studies hosted an event to celebrate International Women’s’ day on the 12th March 2019: Everyday Feminism vs Everyday Sexism

Confirmation of the accuracy of the Gender Pay Gap calculations, as at the snapshot date of 31st March 2018, are signed off on behalf of the University of Chester by:

Professor Neville Ford

Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Enhancement)